SpHMA1 is a Chloroplast Cadmium Exporter Protecting Photochemical Reactions in the Cd Hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola. Plants and Environment, 2018
SpHMA1 is a Chloroplast Cadmium Exporter Protecting Photochemical Reactions in the Cd Hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola
Sedum plumbizincicola is able to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), a nonessential and highly toxic metal, in the above‐ground tissues, but the mechanisms for its Cd hypertolerance are not fully understood. Here, we show that the heavy metal ATPase 1 (SpHMA1) of S. plumbizincicola plays an important role in chloroplast Cd detoxification. Compared with the HMA1 ortholog in the Cd nonhyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, the expression of SpHMA1 in the leaves of S. plumbizincicola was >200 times higher. Heterologous expression of SpHMA1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased Cd sensitivity and Cd transport activity in the yeast cells. The SpHMA1 protein was localized to the chloroplast envelope. SpHMA1 RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants and CRISPR/Cas9‐induced mutant lines showed significantly increased Cd accumulation in the chloroplasts compared with wild‐type plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis revealed that the photosystem II of SpHMA1 knockdown and knockout lines suffered from a much higher degree of Cd toxicity than wild type. Taken together, these results suggest that SpHMA1 functions as a chloroplast Cd exporter and protects photosynthesis by preventing Cd accumulation in the chloroplast in S. plumbizincicola and hyperexpression of SpHMA1 is an important component contributing to Cd hypertolerance in S. plumbizincicola.