Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal developmental stage-dependent effects of cluster bagging on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. BMC Plan
Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal developmental stage-dependent effects of cluster bagging on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries
Run-Ze Sun, Guo Cheng, Qiang Li, Yan-Rong Zhu, Xue Zhang, Yu Wang, Yan-Nan He, Si-Yu Li, Lei He, Wu Chen, Qiu-Hong Pan, Chang-Qing Duan and Jun Wang*
Background: Light conditions significantly influence grape berry ripening and the accumulation of phenolic compounds, but the underlying molecular basis remains partially understood. Here, we applied integrated transcriptomics and pathway-level metabolomics analyses to investigate the effect of cluster bagging during various developmental stages on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.
Results: Bagging treatments had limited effects on berry quality attributes at harvest and did not consistently affect phenolic acid biosynthesis between seasons. Significantly elevated flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents were detected in re-exposed berries after bagging during early-developmental stages, while bagging after v谷raison markedly inhibited skin anthocyanin accumulation. Several anthocyanin derivatives and flavonol glycosides were identified as marker phenolic metabolites for distinguishing bagged and non-bagged grapes. Coordinated transcriptional changes in the light signaling components CRY2 and HY5/HYHs, transcription regulator MYBA1, and enzymes LAR, ANR, UFGT and FLS4, coincided well with light-responsive biosynthesis of the corresponding flavonoids. The activation of multiple hormone signaling pathways after both light exclusion and re-exposure treatments was inconsistent with the changes in phenolic accumulation, indicating a limited role of plant hormones in mediating light/darkness-regulated phenolic biosynthesis processes. Furthermore, gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses discovered that the light-responsive expression of genes encoding bHLH, MYB, WRKY, NAC, and MADS-box transcription factors, and proteins involved in genetic information processing and epigenetic regulation such as nucleosome assembly and histone acetylation, showed a high positive correlation with grape berry phenolic accumulation in response to different light regimes.
Conclusions: Altogether, our findings provide novel insights into the understanding of berry phenolic biosynthesis under light/darkness and practical guidance for improving grape features.